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        Timeline of Significant Events in Chicken Developmental Biology, Immunology, Genetics and Genomics

1400 BC: Domestication of fowls in China and the process was dated back to BC ~6000 supported by fossil records

384-322 BC: The Historia Animalum of Aristotle (384-322 BC) already contained a full description of a chicken embryo

1578-1:  Therpeutic values of Silkie were formally recognized in Chinese medicine with the compilation of COMPENDIUM OF MATERIA MEDICA (BENCAO GANGMU) , a magnum opus on Chinese pharmacology and was valued as ¡° encyclopaedia in ancient China¡± by Charles Darwin, by Shizhen Li (printed in 1593), continuing the tradition since Tang Dynasty (618 -907 AC ) on records

1628-1:  William Harvey and blood circulation

1767-1:  Kaspar Friedrich Wolff observed chick development; heart and blood vessels develop anew in each embryo

1850-1:  Cochin (Yellow Nine Pounders in Chinese) from China was exhibited at Birmingham Expo, symbolized the commercial breeding of broilers

1879-1:  Louis Pasteur transmission of infection

1896-1:  The variation of plant and animals under domestication ( Darwin , 1896)

1902-1:  Allelomorphs to alleles (Bateson and Saunders, 1902)

1903-1:  Genetic linkage (Sutton, 1903)

1908-1:   Epistatis - gene interactions (Bateson and Punnett, 1908)

1909-1:  Sex linkage in chickens (Spillman, 1909)

1911-1:  Peyton Rous discovered the first tumour virus in chicken

1915-1:  After Panama Expo, Silkie had started being used as exhibition subjects in zoos and research specimens in research labs outside China

1925-1:  Selection of broiler and layer lines (Albers, 1998)

1930-1:  Chicken genetic linkage map (Serebrovsky and Petrov, 1930)

1932-1:   Induction and primitive streak (Waddington, 1932)

1936-1:  Chicken genetic linkage map (Hutt, 1936)

1944-1:  Chicken karyotype defined (Yamashina, 1944)

1948-1:  Role of apical ectodermal ridge (AER) in proximo-distal patterning of the limb (Saunders, 1948)

1951-1:  Developmental stages in the chicken (Hamburger and Hamilton, 1951)

1956-1:   Origin of UCD001 Red Jungle Fowl line used for mapping and sequencing (Abplanalp, 1992)

1960-1:  The ¡°B cell¡±, bursa of Fabricius and antibody production in fowl (Glick et al., 1956)

1961-1:  Avian sex chromosomes and microchromosomes (Ohno, 1961)

1975-1:  The zone of polarising activity (ZPA) and positional signalling in patterning (Tickle et al., 1975)

1977-1:  Introns discovered in chicken ovalbumin (Breatnach et al., 1977)

1982-1:  The Neural Crest (Le Douarin, 1982)

1985-1:  Major histocompatibility (B) complex linked to a microchromosome (Bloom and Bacon, 1985)

1987-1:  Gene conversion generates the chicken light chain preimmune repertoire ( Reynaud et al., 1987)

1990-1:  Phylogeny and classification of birds, a study in molecular evolution (Silbey and Ahlquist, 1990)

1992-1:  International Poultry Genome Mapping Project started at XXIII International Conference on Animal Genetics (Burt et al., 1995)

1992-2:  Compton genetic linkage map (Bumstead and Palyga, 1992)

1992-3:  Recombination rates in macro and microchromosomes (Rodionov, 1992)

1993-1:  Inbred Red Jungle Fowl UCD001 used in East Lansing reference cross (Crittenden et al., 1993)

1994-1:  East Lansing genetic linkage map (Levin et al., 1994)

1995-1:  Microsatellite marker map of chicken (Cheng et al., 1995)

1995-2:  Left/right asymmetric gene expression in vertebrates (Levin et al., 1995)

1997-1:  Gridded chicken yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) genomic libraries (Toye et al., 1997)

1998-1:  Gridded chicken cosmid library (Buitkamp et al., 1998)

1998-2:  Two-colour FISH classification of microchromosomes (Fillon et al., 1998)

1998-3:  Origin of avian sex chromosomes from a pair of autosomes (Fridolfsson et al., 1998)

1998-4:  Wageningen genetic linkage map (Groenen et al., 1998)

1998-5:  Mapping QTL for Marek's resistance (Vallejo et al., 1998)

1998-6:  Mapping QTL for growth in chickens (Van Kaam et al., 1998)

1999-1:  Chicken microchromosomes are CpG-rich (McQueen et al., 1999)

1999-2:  Extensive conservation of synteny between chicken and mammals (Burt et al., 1999)

1999-3:  Flow sorting and microdissection of chicken chromosomes (Griffin et al., 1999)

1999-4:  Minimal chicken MHC (Kauffman et al., 1999)

1999-5:  AFLP genetic map (Knorr et al., 1999; Herbergs et al., 1999)

1999-6:  International System for Standardized Avian karyotypes (Ladjali-Mohammedi et al., 1999)

1999-7:  Origin of avian sex chromosomes (Nanda et al., 1999)

2000-1:  Construction of White Leghorn BAC resource (Crooijmans et al., 2000)

2000-2:  Chicken consensus genetic map (Groenen et al., 2000)

2000-3:  Integrated genetic and physical maps of the chicken macrochromosomes (Smith et al., 2000)

2000-4:  Microchromosomes are gene-rich (Smith et al., 2000)

2002-1:  A comprehensive collection of 330K chicken ESTs (Boardman et al., 2002)

2002-2:  Construction of a chicken radiation hybrid panel (Morisson et al., 2002)

2002-3:  Proposal to sequence the chicken genome (NHGRI White Paper)

2003-1:  The formation of AvianNET (Burt and Pourqui¨¦, 2003)

2003-2:  Chicken cDNA microarrays (Burt, Talbot, Neiman, Burnside and Cogburn, personal communication )

2003-3:  Construction of the Red Jungle Fowl UCD001 BAC libraries (Lee et al., 2003)

2003-4:  Chicken BAC physical map based on 60K clones (Ren et al., 2003)

2003-5:  Use of overgoes strategy to link BAC and genetic maps (Romanov et al., 2003)

2004-1:  Full-length sequencing of 17K chicken cDNA clones (Hubbard et al., 2004)

2004-2:  The first complete chicken karyotype (Masabanda et al., 2004)

2004-3:  Chicken BAC physical map of over 140K clones (Warren et al., 2004)

2004-4:  Chicken map of single nucleotide polymorphisms ( Chicken Genome Consortium )

2004-5:  Chicken genome sequence ( Chicken Genome Consortium )


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Bateson, W., Punnett, R. C. (1908) Experimental studies in the physiology of heredity. Poultry Reports Evol. Comm. Royal Society 4 :18-35.

Bloom, S.E., and Bacon, L.D. (1985) Linkage of the major histocompatibility (B) complex and the nucleolar organizer in the chicken. J. Hered. 76 , 146-154.

Boardman , P.E., Sanz-Ezquerro, J., Overton, I. M., Burt, D. W., Bosch, E., Fong, W. T., Tickle, C., Brown, W. R., Wilson, S. A. and Hubbard, S. J. (2002), ¡®A comprehensive collection of chicken cDNAs', Current Biology Vol. 12, pp. 1965-1969.

Breatnach, R., Mandel, J. L., and Chambon, P. (1977). Ovalbumin gene is split in chicken DNA. Nature 270, 314-319.

Buitkamp, J., Ewald, D., Schalkwyk, L., Weiher, M., Masabanda, J., Sazanov, A., Lehrach, H. and Fries, R. (1998) Construction and characterization of a gridded chicken cosmid library with four-fold genomic coverage. Animal Genetics 29, 295-301.

Bumstead, N. and Palyga, J. (1992) A preliminary linkage map of the chicken genome. Genomics 13, 690-697.

Burt DW, Bumstead N, Bitgood JJ, Ponce de Leon FA, Crittenden LB. (1995). Chicken genome mapping: a new era in avian genetics. Trends in Genetics 11 , 190-194.

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Cheng, H. H., Levin, I., Vallejo, R. L., Khatib, H., Dodgson, J. B., Crittenden, L. B., Hillel, J. (1995), ¡®Development of a genetic map of the chicken with markers of high utility', Poultry Science, Vol. 74, pp. 1855-1874.

Crittenden, L. B., Provencher, L., Santangelo, L., Levin, I., Abplanalp, H., Briles, R. W., Briles, W. E., Dodgson, J. B. (1993) Characterisation of a Red Jungle Fowl by White Leghorn backcross reference population for molecular mapping of the chicken genome. Poultry Sci. 72 :334-348.

Crooijmans, R.P.M.A., Vrebalov, J., Dijkhof, R.J.M., van der Poel, J.J. and Groenen, M.A.M. (2000) Two-dimensional screening of the Wageningen chicken BAC library. Mammalian Genome 11, 360-363.

Darwin CH. (1896). The variation of plants and animals under domestication. 2nd ed. Appleton , New York .

Fillon, V., Morrison, M., Zoorob, R., Auffray, C., Douaire, M., Gellin, J. and Vignal, A. (1998) Identification of 16 microchromosomes by molecular markers using two-colour fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH). Chromosome Research 6, 307-314.

Fridolfsson, A.-K., Cheng, H., Copeland, N.G., Jenkins, N.G., Liu, H.-C., Raudsepp, T., Woodage, T., Chowdhary, B., Halverson, J. and Ellegren, H. (1998) Evolution of the avian sex chromosomes from an ancestral pair of autosomes. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, USA 95, 8147-8152.

G;ick, B., Chang, T.S., and Jaap, R.G. (1956). The bursa of Fabricius and antibody production in the domestoc fowl. Poultry Sci. 35 , 224-225.

Griffin , D.K., Haberman, F., Masabanda, J., O'Brien, P., Bagga, M., Sazanov, A., Smith, J., Burt, D.W., Ferguson-Smith, M. and Wienberg, J. (1999) Micro- and Macrochromosome paints generated by flow-cytometry and microdissection: tools for mapping the chicken genome. Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics 87, 278-281.

Groenen MA, Crooijmans RP, Veenendaal A, Cheng HH, Siwek M, van der Poel JJ. (1998). A comprehensive microsatellite linkage map of the chicken genome. Genomics. 49, 265-274

Groenen, M.A.M., Cheng, H.H., Bumstead, N., Benkel, B., Briles, E., Burt, D.W., Burke, T., Dodgson, J., Hillel, J., Lamont, S., Ponce de Leon, F.A., Smith, G., Soller, M., Takahashi, H. and Vignal A. (2000) A consensus linkage map of the chicken genome. Genome Research 10, 137-147.

Hamburger, V., and Hamilton, H. L. (1951). A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo. J. Morphol . 88 , 49-92.

Herbergs, J., Siwek, M., Crooijmans, R. P. M. A., Van der Poel, J. J. and Groenen, M. A. M. (1999), ¡®Multicolour fluorescent detection and mapping of AFLP markers in chicken ( Gallus domesticus )', Animal Genetics, Vol. 30, pp. 274-285

Hutt, F. B. 1936. Genetics of the fowl. VI. A tentative chromosome map. Neue Forschung f¨¹r Tierzucht und Abstammung. (Duerst Festschrift), pp. 105-112.

Kaufman, J., Milne, S., Gobel, T. W., Walker, B. A., Jacob, J. P., Auffray, C., Zoorob, R. and Beck, S. (1999), ¡®The chicken B locus is a minimal essential major histocompatibility complex', Nature , Vol. 401, pp. 923-925.

Knorr, C., Cheng, H. H., Dodgson, J. B. (1999) Application of AFLP markers to genome mapping in poultry. Anim Genet. 30 :28-35.

Ladjali-Mohammedi, K., Bitgood, J.J., Tixier-Boichard, M. and Ponce de Leon, F.A. (1999) International System for Standardized Avian karyotypes (ISSAK): standardized banded karyotypes of the domestic fowl ( Gallus domesticus ). Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics 86, 271-276.

Le Douarin, N. M. (1982). The Neural Crest, Cambridge University Press.

Lee, M. K., Ren, C. W., Yan, B., Cox, B., Zhang, H. B., Romanov, M. N., Sizemore, F. G., Suchyta, S. P., Peters, E. and Dodgson, J. B. (2003), ¡®Construction and characterization of three BAC libraries for analysis of the chicken genome', Animal Genetics, Vol. 34, pp. 151-152.

Levin M, Johnson RL, Stern CD, Kuehn M, Tabin C. (1995). A molecular pathway determining left-right asymmetry in chick embryogenesis. Cell 82, 803-814.

Levin, I., Santangelo, L., Cheng, H.H., Crittenden, L.B. and Dodgson, J.B. (1994) An autosomal linkage map of the chicken. The Journal of Heredity 85, 79-85.

Masabanda, J. S., Burt, D. W, O'Brien, P. C. M., Vignal, A., Fillon, V., Walsh, P. S., Cox, H., Tempest, H. G., Smith, J., Habermann, F., Schmid, M., Matsuda, Y., Ferguson-Smith, M.M. A., Crooijmans, R. P. M. A., Groenen, M.A.M., Griffin, D. K. 2004. Molecular cytogenetic definition of the chicken genome: The first complete avian karyotype. Genetics 166, 1367-1373.

McQueen, H.A., Fantes, J., Cross, S.H., Clark, V.H., Archibald, A.L. (1996) CpG islands of chicken are concentrated on microchromosomes. Nat Genet . 12 :321-324.

Morisson, M., Lemiere, A., Bosc, S., Galan, M., Plisson-Petit, F., Pinton, P., Delcros, C., Feve, K., Pitel, F., Fillon, V., Yerle, M. and Vignal, A. (2002), ¡®ChickRH6: a chicken whole-genome radiation hybrid panel', Genetics Selection and Evolution, Vol. 34, pp. 521-533

Nanda, I., Koehler, M., Schartl, M., Staeheli, P., Burt, D.W., Mizuno, S. and Schmid, M. (1999) 300 million years of conserved synteny between human chromosome 9 and the avian Z sex chromosome. Nature Genetics 21, 258-259.

Ohno, S. (1961) Sex chromosomes and microchromosomes of Gallus domesticus . Chromosoma 11 : 484-498.

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Romanov MN, Price JA, Dodgson JB. 2003. Integration of animal linkage and BAC contig maps using overgo hybridisation. Cytogenet Genome Res. 102, 277-281.

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Silbey, C.G. and Ahlquist, J.E. (1990) Phylogeny and classification of birds, a study in molecular evolution. New Haven, CT, Yale University Press.

Smith, J., Bruley, C.K., Paton, I.R., Dunn, I., Jones, C.T., Windsor, D., Morrice, D.R., Law, A.S., Masabanda, J., Sazanov, A., Waddington, D., Fries, R. and Burt, D.W. (2000d) Differences in gene density on chicken macrochromosomes and microchromosomes. Animal Genetics 31, 96-103.

Smith, J., Paton, I.R., Morisson, M., Fillon, V., Bruley, C.K., Vignal, A. and Burt, D.W. ( 2000c ) Integration of the physical and genetic maps of the chicken macrochromosomes ( Gallus gallus ) and orientation of linkage groups. Animal Genetics 31, 20-27.

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Tickle C, Summerbell D, Wolpert L. (1975). Positional signalling and specification of digits in chick limb morphogenesis. Nature 254, 199-202.

Toye, A.A., Bumstead, N. and Moran, C. ( 1997a ) Chicken solute carrier family 4 anion exchanger member 1 ( SLC 4A 1 ): microsatellite polymorphism and mapping. Animal Genetics 28, 308-322.

Vallejo RL, Bacon LD, Liu HC, Witter RL, Groenen MA, Hillel J, Cheng HH. (1998). Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci affecting susceptibility to Marek's disease virus induced tumors in F2 intercross chickens. Genetics. 148, 349-360.

Van Kaam J. B. C. M. H., van Arendonk, J. A. M., Groenen, M. A. M., Bovenhuis, H., Vereijken, A. L. J., Crooijmans, R., van der Poel, J. J., & Veenendaal, A. (1998). Whole genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting body weight in chickens using a three generation design. Livestock Production Science 54 , 133-150

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Yamashina, Y. (1944) Karyotype studies in birds. I. Comparative morphology of chromosomes in seventeen races of domestic fowl. Cytologia 13 : 270-296.

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