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        Timeline of Significant Events in Chicken Developmental Biology, Immunology, Genetics and Genomics

1400 BC: Domestication of fowls in China and the process was dated back to BC ~6000 supported by fossil records

384-322 BC: The Historia Animalum of Aristotle (384-322 BC) already contained a full description of a chicken embryo

1578-1:  Therpeutic values of Silkie were formally recognized in Chinese medicine with the compilation of COMPENDIUM OF MATERIA MEDICA (BENCAO GANGMU) , a magnum opus on Chinese pharmacology and was valued as ¡° encyclopaedia in ancient China¡± by Charles Darwin, by Shizhen Li (printed in 1593), continuing the tradition since Tang Dynasty (618 -907 AC ) on records

1628-1:  William Harvey and blood circulation

1767-1:  Kaspar Friedrich Wolff observed chick development; heart and blood vessels develop anew in each embryo

1850-1:  Cochin (Yellow Nine Pounders in Chinese) from China was exhibited at Birmingham Expo, symbolized the commercial breeding of broilers

1879-1:  Louis Pasteur transmission of infection

1896-1:  The variation of plant and animals under domestication ( Darwin , 1896)

1902-1:  Allelomorphs to alleles (Bateson and Saunders, 1902)

1903-1:  Genetic linkage (Sutton, 1903)

1908-1:   Epistatis - gene interactions (Bateson and Punnett, 1908)

1909-1:  Sex linkage in chickens (Spillman, 1909)

1911-1:  Peyton Rous discovered the first tumour virus in chicken

1915-1:  After Panama Expo, Silkie had started being used as exhibition subjects in zoos and research specimens in research labs outside China

1925-1:  Selection of broiler and layer lines (Albers, 1998)

1930-1:  Chicken genetic linkage map (Serebrovsky and Petrov, 1930)

1932-1:   Induction and primitive streak (Waddington, 1932)

1936-1:  Chicken genetic linkage map (Hutt, 1936)

1944-1:  Chicken karyotype defined (Yamashina, 1944)

1948-1:  Role of apical ectodermal ridge (AER) in proximo-distal patterning of the limb (Saunders, 1948)

1951-1:  Developmental stages in the chicken (Hamburger and Hamilton, 1951)

1956-1:   Origin of UCD001 Red Jungle Fowl line used for mapping and sequencing (Abplanalp, 1992)

1960-1:  The ¡°B cell¡±, bursa of Fabricius and antibody production in fowl (Glick et al., 1956)

1961-1:  Avian sex chromosomes and microchromosomes (Ohno, 1961)

1975-1:  The zone of polarising activity (ZPA) and positional signalling in patterning (Tickle et al., 1975)

1977-1:  Introns discovered in chicken ovalbumin (Breatnach et al., 1977)

1982-1:  The Neural Crest (Le Douarin, 1982)

1985-1:  Major histocompatibility (B) complex linked to a microchromosome (Bloom and Bacon, 1985)

1987-1:  Gene conversion generates the chicken light chain preimmune repertoire ( Reynaud et al., 1987)

1990-1:  Phylogeny and classification of birds, a study in molecular evolution (Silbey and Ahlquist, 1990)

1992-1:  International Poultry Genome Mapping Project started at XXIII International Conference on Animal Genetics (Burt et al., 1995)

1992-2:  Compton genetic linkage map (Bumstead and Palyga, 1992)

1992-3:  Recombination rates in macro and microchromosomes (Rodionov, 1992)

1993-1:  Inbred Red Jungle Fowl UCD001 used in East Lansing reference cross (Crittenden et al., 1993)

1994-1:  East Lansing genetic linkage map (Levin et al., 1994)

1995-1:  Microsatellite marker map of chicken (Cheng et al., 1995)

1995-2:  Left/right asymmetric gene expression in vertebrates (Levin et al., 1995)

1997-1:  Gridded chicken yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) genomic libraries (Toye et al., 1997)

1998-1:  Gridded chicken cosmid library (Buitkamp et al., 1998)

1998-2:  Two-colour FISH classification of microchromosomes (Fillon et al., 1998)

1998-3:  Origin of avian sex chromosomes from a pair of autosomes (Fridolfsson et al., 1998)

1998-4:  Wageningen genetic linkage map (Groenen et al., 1998)

1998-5:  Mapping QTL for Marek's resistance (Vallejo et al., 1998)

1998-6:  Mapping QTL for growth in chickens (Van Kaam et al., 1998)

1999-1:  Chicken microchromosomes are CpG-rich (McQueen et al., 1999)

1999-2:  Extensive conservation of synteny between chicken and mammals (Burt et al., 1999)

1999-3:  Flow sorting and microdissection of chicken chromosomes (Griffin et al., 1999)

1999-4:  Minimal chicken MHC (Kauffman et al., 1999)

1999-5:  AFLP genetic map (Knorr et al., 1999; Herbergs et al., 1999)

1999-6:  International System for Standardized Avian karyotypes (Ladjali-Mohammedi et al., 1999)

1999-7:  Origin of avian sex chromosomes (Nanda et al., 1999)

2000-1:  Construction of White Leghorn BAC resource (Crooijmans et al., 2000)

2000-2:  Chicken consensus genetic map (Groenen et al., 2000)

2000-3:  Integrated genetic and physical maps of the chicken macrochromosomes (Smith et al., 2000)

2000-4:  Microchromosomes are gene-rich (Smith et al., 2000)

2002-1:  A comprehensive collection of 330K chicken ESTs (Boardman et al., 2002)

2002-2:  Construction of a chicken radiation hybrid panel (Morisson et al., 2002)

2002-3:  Proposal to sequence the chicken genome (NHGRI White Paper)

2003-1:  The formation of AvianNET (Burt and Pourqui¨¦, 2003)

2003-2:  Chicken cDNA microarrays (Burt, Talbot, Neiman, Burnside and Cogburn, personal communication )

2003-3:  Construction of the Red Jungle Fowl UCD001 BAC libraries (Lee et al., 2003)

2003-4:  Chicken BAC physical map based on 60K clones (Ren et al., 2003)

2003-5:  Use of overgoes strategy to link BAC and genetic maps (Romanov et al., 2003)

2004-1:  Full-length sequencing of 17K chicken cDNA clones (Hubbard et al., 2004)

2004-2:  The first complete chicken karyotype (Masabanda et al., 2004)

2004-3:  Chicken BAC physical map of over 140K clones (Warren et al., 2004)

2004-4:  Chicken map of single nucleotide polymorphisms ( Chicken Genome Consortium )

2004-5:  Chicken genome sequence ( Chicken Genome Consortium )

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Fridolfsson, A.-K., Cheng, H., Copeland, N.G., Jenkins, N.G., Liu, H.-C., Raudsepp, T., Woodage, T., Chowdhary, B., Halverson, J. and Ellegren, H. (1998) Evolution of the avian sex chromosomes from an ancestral pair of autosomes. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, USA 95, 8147-8152.

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